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Sodium hypochlorite tanks, bleach tanks polyethylene and fiberglass
CHLORINE (Cl2) AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NaOH)
25 years successful experience storing Caustic and Bleach 12-15 % Sodium Hypochlorite in linear polyethylene 1.9 specific gravity tanks.
Chlorine (bleach) and sodium hydroxide (Caustic) are both in the top twenty products manufactured by the U.S. chemical industry. In 1999, 10.4 billion kilograms of sodium hydroxide and 12.1 billion kilograms of chlorine were produced. These two chemicals are presented together here, because industrially they are produced simultaneously by the same process, the electrolysis of brine (aqueous NaCl).
During electrolysis, chlorine is formed at the anode, and hydrogen and hydroxide ions are formed at the cathode.
Because the Cl2 formed at the anode and the H2 formed at the cathode can react explosively, they must be kept away from each other. Furthermore, the hydroxide ions formed at the cathode can react with any chlorine that remains dissolved in the brine. To keep the products formed at the two electrodes away from each other, a porous diaphragm is placed between the two electrodes in the electrolysis apparatus.
In the electrolysis of brine, water is reduced at the cathode. This occurs because water is more easily reduced than are sodium ions. This is reflected in their standard reduction potentials, –2.71 volts for Na+ versus –0.83 volt for water. At the anode, where oxidation occurs, the situation is not as clear. The standard oxidation potential of water is –1.23 volts, while that for chloride ions is –1.36 volts. This means that water is more easily oxidized than chloride ions. In spite of this, chloride ions are oxidized at the anode, not water. The reaction that occurs is not what would be predicted by considering only the standard oxidation potentials because reflect equilibrium conditions, when no current is flowing. When current begins to flow, the distribution of ions around the electrodes changes, and the equilibrium electrode potentials no longer accurately apply. The potential of a cell depends on the magnitude of the current that is flowing through it. The difference between the equilibrium potential, at zero current, and the potential when current flows is called over voltage. The magnitude of the over voltage depends on the composition of the electrode and electrolyte, as well as on the current. Generally, over voltages are small, so predictions of electrode reactions based on standard electrode potentials are usually correct. However, in the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride, the over voltage for the oxidation of water, which is a neutral molecule, is large enough to make it more difficult to oxidize than chloride ions. (The large over voltage for the oxidation of water also allows lead storage batteries to be recharged. If it were not for this large over voltage, the charging current would oxidize water to oxygen gas instead of PbSO4 to PbO2.)
Commercial 50% (by weight) sodium hydroxide solution is obtained by concentrating the electrolyte removed from the brine electrolysis apparatus. The solution is concentrated by heating it to boil off the water. Solid sodium hydroxide can be obtained from the solution if all of the water is removed.
The chlorine gas and hydrogen gas are collected separately and piped away from the electrolysis apparatus. The chlorine is dried, compressed, and liquefied for shipping and storage. Although the hydrogen can be compressed and stored in cylinders, the commercial value of hydrogen in not sufficient to warrant this. The hydrogen is usually burned at the electrolysis plant to provide the thermal energy used to evaporate water from the sodium hydroxide solution.
Cl2(aq) HOCl(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Treating this solution with a hydroxide, such as NaOH or Ca(OH)2, produces a solution containing the hypochlorite ion.
Cl2(aq) + 2 OH¯(aq) OCl¯(aq) + Cl¯(aq) + H2O(l)
is the active ingredient of "chlorine" laundry bleach, and is used as a disinfectant in swimming pools.
About 20% of the chlorine produced industrially is used in the manufacture of chlorinated plastics (mainly polyvinyl chloride). Another 15% is used in the production of solvents (such as ), 5% in the manufacture of paper, 5% in water treatment, and the remainder in the production of a variety of other chemicals.
Gaseous chlorine reacts with hydrocarbons to form chlorinated hydrocarbons. Chlorine will replace the hydrogen atoms in methane, CH4, sequentially producing chloromethane, CH3Cl, methylene chloride, CH2Cl2, chloroform, CHCl3, and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4. The last three of these products are important solvents in the chemical industry. Another important chlorinated hydrocarbon is vinyl chloride, CH2=CHCl. About 10 billion pounds of this substance are manufactured each year, to be turned into polyvinyl chloride, CH2CHCln. Polyvinyl chloride is used extensively for piping and plumbing, raincoats, shower curtains, magnetic tape, flooring, and electrical wire insulation.
Chlorine reacts (explosively, under certain conditions) with hydrogen to produce hydrogen chloride, HCl.
Cl2(g) + H2(g) 2 HCl(g)
chloride is extremely soluble in water,
forming a solution called hydrochloric acid.
at 25°C is 12 M in
HCl. When it dissolves in water, HCl ionizes
completely, forming H+ and Cl-
AlltanksCom, LLC has over 25 years successful experience storing 12-15 % Sodium Hypochlorite in linear polyethylene 1.9 specific gravity tanks.
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Mail: AlltanksCom - PO 680747 - Houston, Texas 77268
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