A Water Tank contains one of the 3 most critical substances required by human life, Water...
A water tank's most crucial aspect is its ability to store water for long periods of time.
A continually predominate issue for the evolution of civilization, is its ability to obtain and store water for the populace.
No city, town, hamlet, village etc., could long survive without a potable water source.
Water tank design includes the general design of the vessel, choice of tank construction materials, linings, insulation, heaters, level controls, venting and foundations. A few of the many choices of materials available in the construction of a water tank are: plastics; polyethylene, polypropylene, fiberglass; concrete cisterns; steel: lined welded, bolted, carbon, or stainless steel.
When designing a water tank or water storage container it is imperitive that the container should do no harm to the water.
Water is susceptible to any number of negative influences, bacteria, viruses, algae, changes in pH, and accumulation of minerals, metals, accumulated gas and more. Contamination can come from a variety of origins including piping, tank construction materials, animal and bird feces, mineral and gas intrusion. A correctly designed water tank system considers these issues and works to address and mitigate these negative potentials effects.
The AWWA (American Water Works Association) is a national platform of resources with details on water tank design, and guidlines.
Many states require Water Tank end users, cities, counties to complete a certification process to insure the quality of water being consumed meets an approved quality control protocol.
American Water Works Association
This article discusses problems and tank design to remove algae consumption and contact by people, pets and livestock.
Limiting or at best, eliminating the consumption of algae by humans or animals is obviously a medical priority, the following are a few suggestions.
Algae grows best with sunlight, limiting sunlight access to your drinking water increases it shelf life.
Tanks, Closed Top Flat Bottom
Algae is problematic for all parts of a water system, it can be very toxic and can result in a variety of maladies, allergies and extreme illness and is potentially fatal.
Algae requires some light and a food source, water, opague plastic tanks reduce sunlight to almost nothing, this slows the growth of algae (photosynthesis) but does not eliminate, some treatment is required if water is stored for long periods of time.
Algae is a diverse group of primarily aquatic, mostly plantlike organisms that occur in such dissimilar forms; microscopic single cells, loose, filmy conglomerations, matted or branched colonies, or giant seaweed with root - like structures resembling stems and leaves. Most of the algae have characteristics in common with plants, in that they have cell walls, contain the green pigment CHLOROPHYLL, and manufacture their own food through the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
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by Art Woods at Tanksystems LLC
Well known algae are:
Red Tides infecting fish and making people sick.
Blue Green Algae is in many waterways and is not always toxic / poisonous, but when it is...
How does the toxin make people sick?
- Getting it on the skin can cause a rash, hives, or skin blisters (especially on the lips and under swimsuits).
- Inhaling water droplets can cause runny eyes and nose, a sore throat, asthma-like symptoms, or allergic reactions.
- Swallowing water that has toxins in it can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. It can also cause numb lips, tingling fingers and toes, or dizziness.
There are various types of algae, none of them are a good addition to your diet in their raw form.
Black or Dark Green Water Polyethylene Water Tanks are opaque and limit or eliminate most sunlight from reaching your water. Black polyethylene plastic tanks should be used where ever possible for small drinking water storage applications to 15,000 gallons and any application where the goal is the reduction of sunlight to a stored liquid is required.
Fiberglass ASTM 3299 filament wound plastic resin impregnated fiberglass filaments inherently opaque, additional light reduction can be accomplished with gel-coated exterior coatings, available to 100,000 gallons.
Steel is obviously opaque, Bolted steel is available to several hundred thousand gallons and Field Fabricated Steel to Millions of gallons of capacity.
Algae is present as small cells in water, they grow at various speeds but really get going with the addition of sunlight, the sunlight sets off an accelerated photosynthesis growth in the algae cell and the algae begins to bloom/grow and multiply. Our experiments show that even drinking water with residual chlorine will begin to go green in 36 hours of exposure to sunlight. Use opaque tanks to store drinking water.
The American Water Works Association is dedicated to the development of equipment specifications and methodologies for improving drinking water in the United States, their website at http://www.awwa.org for more information on the full ramifications of algae in drinking water and how Drinking water should be treated for human consumption...
The water tanks in the picture, are located in a municipal water system near Houston Texas: (Water Tank examples include)
A. "Hydro-pneumatic water tank", an AWWA lined carbon steel pressure vessel is designed to provide pressurized water to the distribution system.
B. "Chemical contact tanks" of FDA and NSF polyethylene construction allow retention time for water and chemicals to be in contact and mix. 30" AWWA manway and 12" inlet and outlets, Big plastic tanks
C. "Ground water tank" is made of lined carbon steel, it may receive water from well or surface water allowing a large volume of water to be placed in inventory and used during peak demand cycles.
D."Elevated Water Tanks", by elevating the water tank, the increased elevation creates a distribution pressure at the tank outlet of 1 psi per 2.31 feet of elevation, thus a tank elevated to 70 feet creates about 30 psi of discharge pressure, 30 psi is sufficient for most house hold requirements.
E. Rain Water Tanks and Collection systems,
The design profile for these water related tanks begins with the application parameters, thus the type of tank construction material used and the design of the tank was dictated by these variables:
1. Location of the water tank (indoors, outdoors, above ground or underground)
2. Volume of water (gallons) tank will need to hold
3. What the water will be used for, Utility Water or Drinking Water.
4. Temperature of area where water will be stored, concern for freezing.
5. Pressure required to deliver water to use point.
6. How is the water to be delivered to the water tank, Water Well, in bound pipeline.
7. Wind and Earthquake design considerations, allow water tanks to survive seismic events.
Vertical cylindrical dome top tanks may hold from fifty gallons to several million gallons. Horizontal cylindrical tanks are typically used for transport, this low-profile transport storage creates a low center of gravity helping to maintain equilibrium for the transport vehicle, trailer or truck. Hydro-pneumatic tanks are pressurized storage tanks. By pressurization this reservoir of pressurized water creates a surge free delivery of stored water.
NSF International writes standards, inspects and confirms that products such as air, food, consumer goods and water are suitable for human consumption.
The Food and Drug Administration approves materials for use in storing water and food materials. Consult the Code of Federal Register for more details on water tanks.
Chemical Treatment of the Algae in your water supply.
Filtration, multi-stage with a final reverse osmosis ultra filter to create the optimum drinking water.
Ozone and UV add a further degree of treatment.